Human Body for Primary School

The Human Body: Parts and Systems for Kids: Organs of the Body
Human Body Systems for Kids
Human Body for Primary School

Human Body Systems for Kids

Since ancient times, various civilizations have tried to understand the workings of the human body. Have you ever wondered, how does your body digest food and bring nutrients to the exact place where they are needed? How does the heart beat without resting? How does the air we breathe enter our lungs? How do bones and muscles work when walking and running? Why do we feel the perfume of a flower?

Body Systems and Functions

How wonderful is the human body! How many activities we do daily, without thinking. How does the body work? The organism is a complex structure. Knowing how our body works allows us to understand and take care of it. Let’s learn what can hurt it and what is beneficial for its proper functioning.

PDF Printable The Digestive System Click here

How does a Human Body Work?

Our organism is a very complex living mechanism. It is able to think, run, and breathe at the same time in an orderly and efficient way because it is organized in systems. The human body is a complex system that can perform a wide variety of actions and control multiple processes within it. Our body works properly due to the joint work of various organ systems.

Body System Definition 

Our body is made up of organs such as the heart, brain, stomach, bones, muscles. They all integrate organ systems. For example, the liver is part of the digestive system; the heart and arteries make up the circulatory system. They work in coordination so that the body works and conserves life.

General Knowledge about Human Body

What is a system? What are the 10 systems of the body?

System definition: A system is a set of parts with different functions that are related to each other. It works as an integrated whole. The organism is made up of cells with different characteristics and functions. These cells group together to form tissues. In turn, the tissues will form organs. For example, the stomach is an organ that belongs to the digestive system, the brain to the nervous system, the heart to the circulatory system. The organs meet in organ systems to fulfill specific tasks that allow the functioning of the organism of living beings.

Human Body: Organs and their Functions

In the human body, there are different levels of organization.

Internal Organs of Human Body for Kids
Internal Organs of Human Body for Kids

Levels of Organization in the Human Body

All living creatures are formed by cells. There are microscopic organisms that cannot be seen with the “naked eye.” To observe them we need an instrument called a microscope. Scientists discovered that not all living things have the same number of cells. Some are made up of a single cell such as microorganisms, bacteria, and paramecium. All their functions develop in a single cell. On the other hand, humans, animals and plants are multicellular organisms. They have many cells.

Human Cell Diagram

Human Cell: It is the smallest functional and structural unit that forms an organism. The variety of cells in our body is very numerous. (For example, a liver cell is called a hepatocyte, a nerve cell is called a neuron).

Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function. An organ is a structure that is composed of at least two or more tissue types and performs a specific set of functions for the body.Many organs working together to accomplish a common purpose is called an organ system.

  • Tissue: is an organized group of similar cells that have a common function. (Liver tissue, muscle tissue).
  • Organ: is a structure that is composed of at least two or more tissue types and performs a specific set of functions for the body (liver, stomach, heart).
  • System: Many organs working together to accomplish a common purpose (Digestive system, nervous system, respiratory system, circulatory system, others).
Human Body: Levels of Organization
Human Body: Levels of Organization

The Human Being as an Open System

Why is the Human Body considered an Open System? First, let’s differentiate what is an external and internal environment.

While everything that surrounds the organism is called the external environment, anything that is inside the body is the internal environment. The body tends to keep the internal environment constant. This means, for example, that the body temperature remains at 36.5 ° C (or 97.7° F), that the pressure does not rise or drop too much, that the heart continues to beat at a constant rate, neither too agitated nor too slow.

When some of these parameters are modified for some reason, the internal environment tries to return to regularity. For example, when you run and lose water through perspiration. The internal environment reports that it is necessary to replace the lost water in order not to suffer dehydration. It causes thirst and we must ingest water from the external environment.

Our Body as an Open System

In short, the internal environment is related to the external environment. The body systems have the function of interacting with each other, in order to keep the internal environment constant and allow life.

Why is the human body an open system? The human body is an open system, because it constantly exchanges matter, energy and information with the environment that surrounds it. It is complex because it is made up of different types of cells with different characteristics that coordinate with each other to fulfill different functions.

Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the Internal Environment

What are the major Functions of the Human Body?

The organism remains alive because inside it the systems carry out various functions:

  1. Nutrition function.
  2. Control and Regulation of other functions in the Body.
  3. Reproductive Function.

We are going to describe each of them:

Human Body: Nutrition

Nutrition allows us to obtain and transform matter and energy through the following processes:

  • Food incorporation, transformation and assimilation processes.
  • Incorporation of oxygen.
  • Transportation of nutritive substances and waste.
  • Elimination of waste through organs of excretion.

There are four systems involved in nutrition function:

Control and Regulation Function

It allows the relationship with the environment that surrounds us and preserves internal balance. The following systems participate:

  • Nervous System.
  • Endocrine System.
  • Immune System.
  • Locomotion System (also called osteo-arthro-muscular).

Human beings receive stimuli from other beings with whom we share life and from the environment that surrounds us (smells, tastes, images, temperature, sounds). They are “signals” that something has changed. The body must respond to these signals. It does so through the function of relationship and coordination with the environment. Let’s explain a little further.

The 5 Sense Organs

The stimuli are received through the sense organs (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell). This information goes to the nervous system to send the appropriate response. For example, if I touch something hot, the nervous system sends the order to the arm muscles to move our hand (so as not to burn). This information circulates very fast.

The endocrine system also participates in this function. For example, when you consume sugar or sweets, the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood rises. The endocrine system stimulates the secretion of insulin (a hormone) so that glucose enters the cells and blood glucose (the blood glucose level) is normalized. Stimuli from the internal environment are responded to through the secretion of hormones that are “manufactured” by the glands.

The immune system is also involved in this function. When microorganisms that can cause disease enter, this system defends the body from these attackers.

  • What is the Locomotion System?

Our body has bones that allow it to sustain itself. These bones are linked by joints and together with the muscles allow the bones to move. The human body performs many movements, some voluntary such as walking or running, others that do not depend on our will, involuntary, such as heartbeat, bowel movements.

The functions of the locomotion system are: Support, protection and movement.

  • It allows us to move, walk, run, interact with the environment.
  • It protects our internal organs. The bones protect the vital organs, for example the heart, it is well protected in the rib cage formed by the ribs.

Reproductive Function

This function is what allows the species to be conserved and not to become extinct over time. It is a characteristic function of living beings. The reproductive system is involved with the female and male reproductive organs.

Read also: Male and Female Reproductive System

The Main Systems of the Human Body 

Our body is made up of specialized organ systems that perform all the activities we need for life acting in a coordinated way.

The Main Systems of the Human Body for Primary school
The Main Systems of the Human Body 

Circulatory System

The circulatory system is made up of the heart and a network of ducts (veins, arteries, and capillaries) that run throughout the body. It carries substances through the blood, to all organs of the body and. It allows the blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and blood cells. It also helps carry waste to the organs where it will be eliminated.

Digestive System

It is the system responsible for the digestion process. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system ingests and digests food. The activities involved in this process are:

  • Ingestion and motility.
  • Production of Digestive Juices.
  • Absorbtion of released nutrients.
  • Excretion of food components that are indigestible.

Nervous System

The nervous system is a network of nerve cells and fibers that transmit nerve impulses throughout the body. This body system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The body receives information from the internal and external environment. This body system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It allows to control the activities of the body. Capture internal and external stimuli, process that information and give the appropriate responses.

Endocrine System

Hormonal system. The endocrine system regulates metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood. This system is formed with a collection of glands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system to be delivered to the body’s vital organs. Alongisde the Nervous System, they coordinate and control the functioning of all the organism’s systems.

Immune System

When it detects something “strange” it attacks the invader and tries to eliminate it. The immune system is made up of special organs, cells and chemicals that fight infection (microorganisms). The main parts of the immune system are: white blood cells, antibodies, the complement system, the lymphatic system, the spleen, the thymus, and the bone marrow.

Integumentary System 

The integumentary system protects the body’s internal living tissues and organs, protects against invasion by infectious organism, and protects the body from dehydration. This is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The skin is only a few millimeters thick yet is by far the largest organ in the body

Musculoskeletal System (locomotor system)

The musculoskeletal system provides movement, stability, form, and support to the body. It is subdivided into two broad systems:

  • Muscular system: Includes skeletal muscles, that are the ones that act on the body joints to produce movements. And contains the tendons which attach the muscles to the bones.
  • Skeletal system: The main component are the bones. They articulate with each other, form the joints providing mobility. This system is supported by the accessory structures: articular cartilage, ligaments, and bursae.

It fulfills three main functions: supporting, allowing body movements and giving protection to internal organs.

Human Body Anatomy

Reproductive System

The reproductive system is a combination of bodily organs and tissues used in the process of producing offspring. This system produces sex cells or gametes (ovules and sperm), which allow the origin of a new being and the human species to leave offspring.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide that returns from the cells. This system is made up of the airway, the lungs, and the different muscles of respiration. The nostrils are those that favor the entry of air that reaches the lungs.

Urinary System

Its function is to filter the blood to extract substances that are in and helps eliminate waste products from the body. This body system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.

Parts of the Body for Kindergarten

Here we are going to learn the parts of the human body with the images. Try to identify all the parts on your body.

Body Parts for Kindergarten
Body Parts for Kindergarten

Body Parts for Kindergarten

The human body is made up of: Head, trunk, upper extremities and lower extremities.

  • Head: It is found in the upper part of the human body. In the head is the brain and in the front is the face. There we find some sense organs (sight in the eyes, hearing in the ears, taste in the mouth, smell in the nose).
  • Trunk, also called the torso, articulates the upper and lower extremities and the head. The neck joins the head to the trunk. On the sides of the trunk are located the upper or thoracic limbs at the top, and the pelvic or lower limbs at the bottom.
  • Extremities, two upper and two lower. The upper extremities are the arms. They are attached to the trunk by the shoulder and consist of the arm, forearm and hand. The lower extremities are the legs, they are joined to the trunk at the hip, they consist of the thigh, calf and foot.

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